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Animal Welfare and 3Rs More resources and links

Refinement: Handling, housing, procedures

Culture of Care

Culture of Care is an important principle that expresses a commitment to improving animal welfare, scientific quality, appreciation of staff and transparency for all stakeholders.

Swiss Working Group Culture of Care

International CoC Network

Refinement Techniques

The 3H Initiative (Housing, Handling and Habituation)

Information on general refinement techniques

The 3Hs Initiative (

Stressfree handling of mice: Cup- or tunnel handling

how-to-pick-up-a-mouse (NC3Rs)

mouse handling video-clips (NC3Rs)

Refined Handling Overview - The 3Rs Collaborative (

Poster in German, English and French available at our office

Video: Gentle mouse handling and training (Rise)

Rat tickling


Tutorial video

Systematic review

Poster in German, English and French available at our office

Rat handling

Video: Gentle rat handling and training (Rise)

Application methods

Safe i.p. injection with Stop-Cap method (PDF, 220 KB)

Alternative scruff method for s.c. injection, mouse

Diverse training videos (procedures with care)

Why needles should not be used multiple times

Training models for intravenous injections on mice

Voluntary oral intake (gavage alternatives, injection alternatives)

Voluntary oral intake of substances avoids handling stress and can replace injections and oral gavages. Here are some examples:

Micropipette-guided Drug Administration (MDA) - Publikation: Pipette Feeding with condensed milk (Mouse, UZH, Institute of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Micropipette-guided Drug Administration (MDA) - SOP (PDF, 222 KB)

Instillation with honey (Mouse)

Nutella and Analgesia (Rat)

Nutella and Analgesie (Mouse)

Blood sampling

Refinement of blood sampling (NC3Rs)

Decision Tree (NC3Rs)


Aseptic techniques for rodent surgery (procedures with care)

Housing of laboratory animals

NC3Rs ressources

Article: A good life for laboratory rodents?

Recommendations for enrichment for single housed mice at UZH (PDF, 210 KB)

Recommendations to reduce male mouse aggression at UZH (PDF, 206 KB)

Weiterführende Informationen

Anesthesia and Analgesia

Recommendations on anesthesia and pain management can be found here.

3R Podcast

The 3R Podcast from NC3Rs and Lab Animals provides you with the latest 3R news in just 3 minutes.


Refinement Wiki

Refinement Wiki by norecopa

Refinement Database AWI

This database is updated every three months with newly published scientific articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research.

Refinement Database | Animal Welfare Institute

AALAS Learning Library

3R LAS Interactive

Las interactive brings together the free information portal vtk online and the training portal las campus. The website addresses researchers, students, competent authorities, trainers as well as technical staff at Universities, independent research facilities and the industry.